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107/09/20(四) Prof. Daphne Maurer 主講「How the Baby Learns to See: Lessons from Children treated for Congenital Cataract」


講者 Prof. Daphne Maurer (Department of Psychology, Neuroscience & Behaviors, McMaster University, Toronto)
時間 9/20 (四) pm1:30~2:40

Prof. Daphne Maurer為加拿大國家院士,其最著名的研究有關視覺發展的敏感期,她以年幼時患白內障的患者為模型,追蹤他們治療後低階到高階(包括臉孔辨認)視覺的發展。Prof. Maurer同時亦在加拿大進行大型的兒童視力篩檢工作。



How the Baby Learns to See: Lessons from Children treated for Congenital Cataract


Newborns can see but there are serious limitations on their vision that take many years to disappear. We have investigated the role of visual experience in driving those changes by taking advantage of a natural experiment: children born with dense cataracts in one or both eyes that blocked all patterned visual input until the cataracts were removed during infancy and the eyes given compensatory contact lenses. Even when the babies missed only a few months of visual input, they later develop deficits in low-level (e.g., acuity) that are worse in the deprived eye when the deprivation was monocular rather than binocular. That pattern suggests that visual development is tuned not only by visual input but also the balance of input from the right and left eye. Unsurprisingly, there are also deficits in high level vision (e.g., perceiving the direction of motion, face processing), and even when the capability appears to be spared (e.g., face detection), the neural underpinnings may be abnormal. However, unlike low-level vision, these deficits are smaller after monocular than after binocular deprivation. To understand this paradox, we are exploring the re-organization of hearing in the cataract patients and how its interaction with vision differs between bilateral and unilateral patients. Overall, the results indicate that perceptual development is perturbed by imbalances, be they between the eyes or between the senses.



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